Hysterectomy refers to the surgery done to remove the uterus of women. Uterus is the organ that hosts the baby in pregnant women. Sometimes, in hysterectomy, the ovaries and fallopian tubes are also removed. A patient may reach menopause at an early age if she opts to keep the ovaries during the surgery. But if the ovaries are removed, the woman may enter menopause immediately and she may have symptoms of vaginal dryness and hot flashes. After the surgery one takes four to six weeks to recover and is advised not to lift heavy objects after the surgery.
1. Partial removal of uterus, where the upper part of the uterus is removed and the cervix is left.
2. Total removal of uterus and the cervix
3. Removal of uterus, cervix, tissues on the both sides of the cervix and upper vagina.
1. Cancer (in uterus, ovaries or cervix) - For tumor like growth in uterus, one has to go for surgery of the vagina and the uterus. Some patients go for chemotherapy or radiation therapy to prevent surgery but it mainly depends on the stage of cancer.
2. Fibroids - It is a kind of muscular tumor, which are non-cancerous and it can be found on the walls of the uterus. It is caused due to heavy bleeding and it can also be removed through medication. But if the problem is not solved though medication, one may have to go for surgery.
3. Uterine prolapsed - It is caused when the uterus moves from its place to get down to vagina and the patient suffers from urinary and bowel disease. It can be cured through other methods but if the condition does not improve, one may have to go for surgery.
4. Endometriosis - It is a condition, in which, the tissues of the uterus grow outside the uterus such as on the ovaries and fallopian tubes. The condition may cause pain in the lower back and in the pelvis.
5. Excessive bleeding - It can be caused by changes in hormones, by infection, cancer or by fibroids.
6. Excess pelvic pain - There are many types of pelvic pains, which can be treated through hysterectomy but one can avert surgery to prevent related side effects of surgery.
1. In the abdominal hysterectomy the doctor makes a cut of five to seven inches on the lower abdomen to do the surgery.
2. In vaginal hysterectomy the surgeon makes a cut on the vagina and after the operation stitches are re-done to seal the vagina.
3. Laparoscopy - The instrument laparoscope helps the surgeon to see the pelvic organ with a small camera and a tube, and the doctor makes a few cuts on the belly to insert the laparoscope. Later the uterus is cut in pieces to be removed with the help of an incision. The doctor may even use other methods to cut the uterus and remove it through the vagina.
4. Robotic surgery is done when the patient suffers from tumor and is overweight and it helps the doctor to perform the surgery with the help of a machine.