Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is common among young girls. Almost 1 out of 10 girls has this disease. In this disease, many cysts are formed in the ovaries. The presence of cysts is not the factor that causes PCOS. In fact it is the hormonal imbalance that causes it as there are a lot of other diseases in which the cysts might develop in the ovaries.
PCOS is one of the most important causes of infertility in women. It can be inherited like if anyone in your mother's or father's family has it, you are also prone to it. However, if it is not in any of the parents' family, and still you are diagnosed with it, it might be due to a mutation or gene duplication. It might also happen due to the environmental factors.
An affected person might experience irregular or absence of menstrual periods, acne problem, obesity, high blood pressure, dandruff, oily skin, infertility and development of facial hair (masculine characteristics). Most of theses symptoms could develop due to some other problem too. So, to be completely sure about having PCOS, you must consult a doctor who puts you through a series of tests and lets you know whether you have it or not.
The disease basically affects the hormone cycle going on in the women. The female ovaries produce three types of hormones: estrogen, progesterone and androgens. These are the female sex hormones and they regulate the menstrual cycle. Any imbalance in their production leads to absence or irregularity of periods. Androgens are the male hormones but they are produced in all the females.
The exact cause is unknown but scientists consider increased insulin level as a cause of PCOS. When body produces too much of the insulin hormone, its increased concentration signals the ovaries to produce more of the male hormones androgens and testosterone.
The over production of these hormones can also be triggered by excessive release of the luteinizing fluid from the pituitary gland. This hormone causes the development of masculine features such as increased facial hair or pattern baldness.
If PCOS is not treated in time, it may lead to high blood pressure. It might also cause high cholesterol levels. You might also get diabetes type 2. All these make you prone to heart diseases. Also infertility can occur. So you must get it treated in time as soon as you are diagnosed with it.
There is no proper cure to the disease yet. But the treatment and regular medication can help you get rid of a lot of the symptoms prevailing. But for this purpose it is important that you are diagnosed correctly with the disease and its severity. Though the disease does not completely heal up but still the women who have this can get rid of infertility and produce normal and healthy babies.
If you are obese, try losing weight. It helps get rid of many of the symptoms of PCOS. It also reduces the risk of heart diseases. You can easily reduce weight through regular exercise, a healthy diet and lots of water intake.