Sterilization can be defined as the process carried out in order to infertile any individual. In other words sterilization leads to contraception. Pregnancy is prevented by averting the union of male gamete (sperm) with female egg. Sterilization is an enduring procedure and it can't be reversed. But there are some procedures or alternatives to the permanent female sterilization.
Sterilization can be applied to both men and women and it's also safe. Yet women are more inclined towards this phenomenon reason being that they bear the impact of pregnancy.
Although the process of sterilization involves surgery but scientists are researching on the methods that can be used instead of incision. Governments of several different countries are offering incentives for the couples just as to encourage and control the birth. Also, there is extensive range of family planning methods available that couples can adopt to meet their needs.
'Tubal ligation' in women is the technique that is used as sterilization, can be regarded as "having one's tubes tied". It's a surgical process, it involves the Fallopian tubes which are close reason being that they carry the ova to the uterus. This generally involves a common anesthetic and a laparotomy or laparoscopic loom to incise, snip or cauterize the fallopian tubes.
Hysterectomy is also a method that is used to sterilize in women. The uterus is surgically taken out, permanently putting a stop to pregnancy and some diseases, such as uterine cancer.
Minilaparotomy - A minilaparotomy is a surgical modus operandi that is carried out after one or two day's child birth. It is performed in an operating room using common or local anesthesia. The physician makes a small notch (one to three inches) in the belly, and then removes a part of the fallopian tubes on each side. It has some disadvantages: the woman is in greater need pain medication and recovery time is little longer.
Permanent sterilization in women has very less complications. Those can be internal bleeding, infection, rectum or bowel injury and problems related to anesthesia. Sterilized women can have irregularities in their menstrual cycle than women who are not sterilized. Sterilization does not affect one's lovemaking needs or performance.
There are some alternatives available beside permanent female sterilization that include birth control pills, vaginal ring, female condoms, patch, diaphragm, cervical cap, intrauterine device or injection, patch.
Female condom - The female condom is put on by a woman to prevent semen from entering the vagina. It is a scabbard made of nitrile and is pre-lubricated with a silicone-based lubricant. There is a flexible, bendy ring at each end. The edges of the ring at the closed end of the scabbard are clutched together and then placed in as far as possible into the vagina; upon release, the ring will open to seize the condom in place. The ring at the open end of the scabbard remains outside the vulva. At this point of time make sure that the condom is not twisted.
Diaphragm or cervical cap - It's a doom shaped cup with rim. It is made of latex rubber or silicone. It is to some extent filled with a spermicidal cream and positioned as far as possible in the vagina and placed just as to cover the cervix. After intercourse, it should be in place at least 6 hours after and then it should be removed. If intercourse is performed more than one time, additional spermicide should be refreshed in the vagina.