Painful urination is also called dysuria, and it is more common in women than in men. Acute dysuria can be seen in one-fourth of the women between the age of twenty five and fifty four. It can be caused by infection or inflammation, and sometimes, women can feel burning sensation in the urinary bladder caused by the use of certain chemicals or soaps. Inflammation in urinary bladder and kidney stones can cause pain in urination. Taking chemotherapy in the pelvic region can cause inflammation.
There can be two types of causes for painful urination - Infectious and non infectious causes.
1. Bacterial vaginosis - It is caused by overgrowth of bacteria and the infection causes milky discharge. Dysuria can be caused by infection of the Escherichia coli bacteria.
2. Pyelonephritis - It is an infection caused by bowel organism and it can reach the kidney to cause severe pain and abdominal pain. In acute conditions, the patient may suffer from infection of the kidney and renal pelvis.
3. Vulvitis - It is caused by yeast infection to vulva. It includes infections to labia, entrance of the vagina and the clitoris.
4. Vaginitis - It is a term used for infections to vagina, which can be caused by yeast, bacteria or virus. There are various forms of Vaginitis -
a. Candida infection - Yeast infection caused by candida causes thick white discharge from the vagina and it can be itchy and red.
b. Trichomoniasis - It is a form of STD, which can be caused by parasite. Sometimes, there are no symptoms of the infection but sometimes, it causes pain and soreness.
c. Genital herpes - it is a kind of viral infection, which can be transmitted from one person to other through physical contact. The virus enters the body through skin tear and travels to the nerve root to stay there permanently.
5. Cervidtis - It is a kind of infection of the uterus.
6. Cystitis - It is a kind of infection to the urinary bladder, which may develop in women after a intercourse. It can be caused by injury to the bladder, which later gets infected by coli bacteria. It is common in women, who are sexually active and the infection can be caused either by the E-coli bacteria or by Staphylococcus saprophyticus.
Some of the non infectious causes for painful urination are -
1. Patient suffering from the cancer of the urinary bladder or the renal tract may have dysuria.
2. Pain can be caused due to infections caused by certain chemicals, toilet paper or soaps.
3. Pain can be caused by injury or trauma. For example - urethral trauma is caused by physical activities such as horse riding or bicycling or intercourse.
4. Reduction in the level of estrogen may cause dryness and result in pain. The condition is mostly as post menopausal symptom.
5. Sometimes, the condition is caused by depression and psychological conditions. Sometimes, certain nerve disorder may cause problem in bladder emptying.
6. Pain can be caused due to lesions.
7. Diabetes mellitus - The patients suffering from diabetes mellitus may have painful urination.