The study of parasites is known as parasitology. There are various parasites available in dogs. One of them is Babesiosis. It is caused by a single celled parasite known as piroplasmid, called Babesia canis. In order for the disease to pass on from one dog to another the parasite must pass through a vector host. This vector is the female tick. At the early stages the parasite is very simple and circular organism. This parasite very easily infects the blood cells and feeds on hemoglobin. Babesiosis is especially prevalent in temperate and hot areas where ticks are available in abundant.
The second type of parasite is Leishmaniosis. It is a type of a parasitic disease that mainly affects dogs. This parasite is too single celled, generally found in Mediterranean coast of Europe. This is one of the most dangerous and serious parasitic disease and the best prevention is to avoid contact with a vector. At present, no vaccinations are available, so precautions should be taken seriously like taking out a dog after dusk and sandflies are very much present at night and use of insecticides particularly to the sensitive areas like nose. Dogs can fall for this any number of times ignoring the fact how many times it has taken place in a dog.
The third type is Coccodiosis. It is a parasitic digestive disorder. These parasites are also single celled. There are several types of coccidia in dogs like Isospora, cryptosporidia and sarcosporidia. This parasite generally comes into existence by dog breeding. Coccidiosis is not that serious but preventive measures should be adopted. Prevention includes isolation in a breeding situation. Treatment adopted should be early and complete using sulfa drugs and medications that prevent the parasite entering into the intestinal cells.
Symptoms shown up by pets that are infected with internal parasites vary but mainly depend on age, nutritional intakes, parasite load and the duration. The most common symptom is diarrhea. Other symptoms involve poor appetite, depression, coughing, enlarged abdomen. Even some pets die instantly and some don't even show any of the above symptoms. Internal parasites generally harm younger animals. The pet's feces should be checked for internal parasites at least twice a year. Moreover, dogs that are outside and are exposed to other animals should be checked for internal parasites more often. A routine worming should take place on all dogs frequently.
Most of the internal parasites are diagnosed by microscopic examination of the feces for eggs that are released by adult female in the pet's intestine. A negative fecal report does not mean that the dog is free from internal parasites. In many cases practitioners treat pets even on a negative report. The main primary methods of fecal analysis are direct observation and fecal flotation. Direct observation is used to detect eggs that don't show up in the fecal flotation. Fecal flotation is the most accurate method for detecting internal parasites. In order to obtain a fecal sample there should be sanitary conditions and should be kept in a cool place until analyzed.