Children under the age of five years need to grow and also fight infections. Children all around the world suffer from birth injuries, malnutrition, infections, lack of emotional and intellectual help, and increased pollution in air and water, which causes food allergies in babies. Educated and healthy children are future of the world.
1. About four million babies die in the first month of their birth and nine million die from preventable causes.
2. Children may suffer from short-term or long-term illnesses, due to malnutrition or lack of proper care.
3. Child's health depends on many factors such as environmental factor, nutrition, birth conditions, health status of mother and birth spacing.
4. Children have stunted growth caused by deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc.
5. New born babies and children can suffer from non communicable diseases, due to the lack of proper care.
6. Children born to a large family, have to compete with other family members to get resources and maternal attention.
Precautions taken by birth centres after baby birth
As a baby is born, the doctor measures the length, weight and the head circumference of the baby. The temperature and the heart beat are measured. The baby may be given drops to get rid of infections, and vitamin K may be given to prevent bleeding.
Firstly, after the birth, the umbilical cord is removed and birth centre may provide instructions for feeding the baby and for giving it bath. The doctor may advise the parent to quit smoking to prevent infection to the new baby. Care is needed from the time of birth and there are many precautions, which can prevent health hazards to the babies.
1. In the initial few weeks, the baby sleeps for more than 15 hours in a day and only wakes up to take the feed but if she sleeps without showing any activity, you should meet the doctor as it can be caused due to some infections.
2. Eye problem in new born is common and it may cause infections like conjunctivitis. Babies should be kept away from infectious objects.
3. If the newborn suffers from fever, contact the doctor immediately.
4. Very loose stool can indicate stomach problem or infection. A runny nose should be treated to allow the baby to breathe properly.
5. Hold the newborn carefully to prevent neck shake. Baby has a weak neck and it should not be shaken.
6. Breast feed is best for the baby in the initial six months of birth and after six months, the baby can be given food substitutes and fluids, but the food should not choke.
7. Immunization is important for child's health and babies may get the first immunization of hepatitis B vaccine, which is given three time.
After six weeks the baby starts recognizing people and she may cry to say "hungry", "thirsty", "I want something" or "tired". The baby learns language, recognizes sound, and listens to the sounds to develop a bond with the parents. Parents should communicate with the baby or sing, to help her recognize language.
After six months, the baby starts speaking words and her mobility increases. Growth and development of children differ depending on many things and parents should not worry if their kid walks late or has a different developmental patterns .There are also differences in growth pattern of a baby boy and a baby girl.