Diabetes mellitus refers to the set of diseases, which are related to blood sugar level of the human body. Glucose is needed to perform everyday activities and when somebody eats a food. Glucose is released into the blood, which provides energy to a person needed to carry out the daily activities. Glucose in blood is regulated through hormones, which includes insulin, which is produced by pancreas but people suffering from diabetes do not have enough insulin to release glucose in blood and glucose is found in the blood. When the high glucose level is exposed to certain body parts, it causes harm.
There are mainly 3 types of diabetes - Type 1, Type 2 and gestational diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes: It is caused when the body produces insulin in small quantities and it is mostly found in people since childhood. People, who suffer from diabetes of type 1, have to take insulin treatment throughout their life.
Type 2 diabetes: Patients suffering from type 2 diabetes secrete insulin, but in a very low quantity, which could not cope up with the high glucose level of the body. Ninety percent of the patients suffering from diabetes have the type 2, which can be controlled by reducing the intake of glucose and exercising.
Gestational diabetes is common in pregnant women, who are at a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes later.
People suffering from diabetes undergo a condition called prediabetes phase, in which, the sugar level is high in blood. People suffering from prediabetes phase are at a high risk of getting a heart attack or a stroke and the condition can be revered if immediate medications and precaution is taken.
1. It can cause damage to retina, kidneys and nerves. Damage to nerves may cause paralysis and ulcers in stomach.
2. It increases the level of fat plaques in the blood vessels and lowers blood clotting.
3. Patients are prone to infections caused by bacteria, virus or antibodies.
4. Patients suffer from high cholesterol level, high blood pressure and they have a high amount of triglycerides in their body.
1. Elevated blood sugar and presence of glucose in urine.
2. Increased thirst caused by dehydration. The patient suffers from polydipsia, where the glucose level in the body increases and the patient feels, more and more, thirsty because the brain sends signals to take more water. The patient has excessive urination called polyuria because the human body releases excess sugar and water through urine.
3. Loss of weight caused by insulin deficiency, although the appetite increases.
4. Vaginal infections and bladder infections.
5. Vision problem
7. Fatigue, vomiting, nausea (In type 1), the common symptoms are nausea and vomiting in the initial stage and extreme weight loss, which is caused because the body breaks the muscles tissues to produce energy.
8. Weight irregularities is caused because of loss of water from the body .In some cases patient gains weight.
9. Skin infections and reduced blood clotting are common in diabetes patients because the blood cells couldn't response immediately to the immune system to function properly. Diabetes for many years thickens the blood vessels, which affects the blood flow to various part of the body.