Large intestine cancer is also known as colorectal cancer or adrenocarcinoma. The cancerous tissues can spread to other parts of the body from large intestine, such as lymph nodes and the liver. The cancer of large intestine is the leading cause for cancer related death in America. Basically, the colorectal cancer starts in the inner lining of the large intestine and the rectum.
1. The main reason for colon cancer is food.
2. The disease is found in people of age above sixty years.
3. People of European and African America descendents are at high risk.
4. People eating processed meat are at high risk.
5. Tumor from other parts of the body can spread to large intestine.
6. Family history of bowel diseases.
7. Genetic syndrome can increase the risk.
8. If a person takes low fibre diet and mostly red meat, he is at a high risk.
9. Smoking and drinking, increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer.
1. Pain in abdomen
2. Blood in stool
3. Tenderness, diarrhoea, intestinal obstruction
5. Weight loss
1. Physical examination: The patient is tested through physical examination, rectal examination.
2. Test for blood in stool: The procedure is also called faecal occult blood test, where the stool is tested for the presence of blood but this test may not show positive in patient suffering from colon cancer, therefore colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy is done to diagnose the problem.
3. Blood cell count is done to find out the number of white blood cells and functioning of liver in the patient. The patient is tested for anaemia.
There are six stages of the disease. The first stage is called stage zero (stage 0) where the tumor cells are formed but not spread to other parts of the body. In stage two (stage 1); the cancer spreads to the inner layers of the intestine. In the third stage (stage 2), it spreads to muscles of the colon. In the fourth stage (stage 3), it reaches lymph nodes. In the fifth stage (stage 4), it spreads to lungs and ovaries and the sixth stage (stage 5), is the stage of recurrence.
1. The patient suffering from large intestine cancer is given chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
2. Surgery is done in extreme case to remove the cancer cells. Surgery is also called colectomy. In the initial stages of caner, the tumor can be removed easily, but in later stages the cancer reaches to other parts of the body and for the patients of higher stages, chemotherapy is required after every six to eight months.
3. In acute conditions, the patient is treated by burning the cancer, giving chemotherapy, cutting or freezing the cancer.
Complication in large intestine cancer: The patient is at a high risk if he suffers from blockage of the large intestine or if the cancer returns after some months of treatment. The disease can be treated at an early stage and patient can survive after five years, if the tumor is diagnosed early. To prevent large intestine cancer, people of age above sixty years should have their colon screened frequently and should reduce intake of meat and low fibre diet.