The infection caused by E. histolytica in the intestinal tract can cause dysentery called amoebic dysentery. The main reason for the spread of amoebic dysentery is contamination of drinking water and food. The inflammation is also known as Amoebiasis and it causes dysentery to the patients, who are infected by a parasite called Entamoeba histolytica. The infection may cause discomfort in the abdomen and in some cases, it causes acute culminating dysentery. There are other risks of amoebic dysentery, which include infection to liver, lungs, spleen, brain and skin.
The main cause of amoebic dysentery is infection caused by parasite, which can live in human body without causing it any harm but sometimes the organism infects the parts of the body and reaches to the heart or the liver. Parasitic can spread by eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water. It can spread to other people, if a person does not wash his or her hands after going to toilet and handles food for others.
Many people suffering from Amoebic Dysentery may not show any symptoms and these people only serves as carrier of the disease. The symptoms of the disease start almost seven to fifteen days of infection, which is also called the incubation period. During the incubation period the patient suffers from ulcers and anaemia. The parasite digs the stomach lining and causes ulcers. The parasite eats the food taken by the host and releases toxic substances through the stools. People suffer from loss of appetite and abdominal pain after seven to ten days of infection. The patient may suffer from allergic reactions caused by the parasites to the body. The disease may get complicated if the parasites break the walls of the intestine and cause perforations. The problem is called Peritonitis, where the peritoneum gets inflamed.
Foul smelling stool
Blood in faeces
Gas and bloating
Stool examination: The doctor may examine the cysts of the trophozites in the stool sample. The cysts are mostly spherical and brownish eggs of the parasite, which can be found using iodine strain.
Biopsy is done to find out the traces of cysts of the parasite.
Blood tests are done to count the white blood cells and red blood cells. The parasite causes an increase in the number of white blood cells causing leucocytosis. The blood cell count also indicates if the parasite has damaged the liver or not.
Ultra-sound is done in case the liver of the patient is infected by the parasite.
Treatment: In case of asymptomatic infections, the patient has a high chance of getting re-infected and patient is treated with oral medicines such as diiodohyroxyquin. Medicines used for symptotic cases (where the patent has low chances of spreading the infection and getting re-infected) include metronidazole and Tinidazole. The patient may need specialized treatment for the liver damage.