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Achalasia Cardia, Esophageal Motility Disorder

Esophageal motility disorders are of many types such as achalasia, spastic esophageal motility disorder, non specific esophageal motility disorder and secondary esophageal motility disorder.

Reasons for IEM (Ineffective Esophageal Motility)

1. Acid reflux
2. Advancing age
3. Diabetes
4. Achalasia
5. Scleroderma
6. Chagas disease
7. Use of certain drugs
8. Thyroid disease
9. Polymyositis
10. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
11. Parkinson's Disease

Some behavioural precautions for patients suffering from esophagus dysmotility

1. Eat small amount of food in one sitting. Avoid large sized food.
2. Do not lie down after taking a meal.
3. You should be careful of using pills.
4. Do not eat acidic food.
5. Exercise to control your weight, but you should not exercise immediately after taking a meal.

Achalasia Cardia

Achalasia Cardia is a esophageal motility disorder, in which, the lower portion of the oesophagus does not widens up to allow food to get inside the stomach and the inappropriate motility of food causes improper dilating of oesophagus tubular structure and the lower end of the esophagus has increased muscular and fibrous tissues.

There are two types of Achalasia: Primary and secondary achalasia. Primary achalasia is linked to the loss of ganglion cell and secondary achalasia is linked to the other health problems such as diabetes, changes disease or malignancies.

Medical Causes of Achalasia Cardia

Achalasia cardia may be caused in the following conditions

1. If peristalsis is lost in the patient or peristalsis occurs, but it is very weak and not regular.
2. The lower end of esopahagus fails to relax, either completely or partially.
3. LES pressure is too high in some patients.
4. Lack of coordination of LES and swallowing.

Symptoms of Achalasia Cardia

1. Increased difficulty in eating and swallowing food - be it liquid or solid
2. Sickness and pain in throat
3. Regurgitation, in which, the undigested food comes back to mouth
4. Infections in windpipe, which may cause pneumonia
5. Acidity and heartburn
6. Weight loss

Treatments of Achalasia Cardia

1. The problem is detected through CT scan/endoscopic ultrasound, where the oesophagus abnormalities and thickened muscles on the lower portion of esophagus can be noticed.

2. There are four types of drugs given for achalasia cardia, which includes calcium channel blocker, nitrates, opioids, antichoinergic drug. Botox injection can be given to the patient to inhibit the release of acetylcholine.

3. Endoscopis dilation is done by forcefully damaging the muscles at the end of oesophagus to allow proper food movement, but this therapy comes with the danger of perforation in the esophagus.

4. Surgery of oesophagus also helps the patient.

Spastic esophageal motility disorder: It is a kind of problem, in which, the patient suffers from chest pain after taking food or liquids. The condition is not critical like achalasia. The problem is related to transient esophageal muscle, altered visceral sensation or luminal distension. The patient may suffer from heart burn and weight loss.

Scleroderma esophagus: It is the situation in which the patient suffers from severe acid reflux and there are two forms of scleroderma: Progressive systemic sclerosis and CREST.

 Read Related Articles
Mouth, Esophagus Disorders, Diseases of Mouth and Esophagus
Mouth Ulcers Symptoms, Causes, Treatment
Esophagitis Symptoms, Causes, Treatment
Achalasia Cardia, Esophageal Motility Disorder, Esophageal Dysmotility
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